I remember well as approximately in the late 90s, Russian aviators announced the creation of the newest fighter with the reverse sweep of the wing. I remember the noise of information about this was a lot. The plane was represented as something that had no analogues, which was really so, and a unique combat unit, which is not equal. And if all this is multiplied by the general condition of science at the time in our country, and the fact that it seemed to be anything new, and even more so revolutionary new, Russia at that time was not able to build, the appearance of a new aircraft was indeed Like a local victory.
However, the victorious fanfares turned rags, and the project has been safely closed over time. For all this time, the Su-47 aircraft was built in the number of already ... one unit. It would seem that everyone forgot about him. Yes, and I actually did not remember and was not interested. However, by visiting the MAKS-2019 in this weekend in Zhukovsky, where the only one built and by the Word, the copy of this unique aircraft remained to this day was put up on display with the general public, I decided to talk about it.
I suddenly became wondering, and whether people passing by Him and looking at this, even externally embarrassed by the car, which did not even bother to the exhibition, and it is not known whether the plane is still able to fly, which is still unusual in front of them, And why he has such absolutely unusual wings that are deployed in the opposite direction.
In the 90s, it was possible to hear that the Russian military-industrial complex is in such a state that it is not capable of creating anything from scratch, and those few developments that managed to implement in those difficult conditions are based on Soviet developments, or are the continuation of What began to be designed until 1991. For the most part, it really was so. Not an exception and Su-47 "Berkut", which was presented in 1997. The plane began to develop in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, based on the Su-27 fighter. Indeed, if you deploy the Su-47 wings back, giving them classical sweatshirt and put the car near Su-27, as they say, find 10 differences. But it is only externally. By content, these were two absolutely different aircraft.
Thanks to the reverse sweep of the wing, the Su-47, as expected, will not be equal in the air. Judge themselves, compared to more habitual aircraft, the machine with a new wing had significantly better aerodynamics, lifting force, improved handling at low speeds. All this in the aggregate made a plane at times more reliable and maneuvering, compared with competitors, which would give him an indisputable advantage in battle. In addition, freed from most of the power elements, which have now been transferred to the aircraft's stern, the middle part of the fuselage, gave a new, improved centering, expanding the possibilities for placing weapons.
It sounds great, is not it? You can earn it so that an rational question arises: why no one in the world did not think of expanding the wings in the opposite direction if it gives so many advantages? But, as it often happens, fought on paper, but forgot about ravines. Having tried to make a fairy tale with a fair Soviet designers, quickly faced with a huge number of difficulties. Moreover, these difficulties were not from the discharge of what little things that could be closed with temporarily eyes and solve them in the process of refinement. Each of them separately, it was capable of putting a cross on the entire project. And all together ...
It seems to us, simple ordinary people, they say that such, the wings in the opposite direction have unfolded and ready. In fact, everything turned out to be much more difficult. Despite all its advantages, deployed in the opposite direction of the wing, showed one very significant disadvantage. When a certain speed is reached, it simply began to curl. To avoid this, the wing was necessary to somehow strengthen. But as? In those days, there were no light and durable materials that were actively used in aviation today. Of course, the design was trying as much as possible as much as possible, alleviate. And yet, the weight of the aircraft significantly exceeded the calculated one. Ultimately, everything came to the fact that in the USSR simply did not turn out to be aviation engines, which could be installed on such a class of an aircraft, but which would be given the necessary traction. Among other things, in the new conditions, with new aerodynamics, the aircraft needed a new electronics, without which the pilot would simply be able to cope in the event of a number of events. All this, it was necessary to develop from scratch.
But as you know, our constructors are always ready for any challenges. And in the early 90s, all the necessary technology for the further development of the project was created. Even the growing political and economic difficulties have not prevented. The state has already collapsed, but the plane was not abandoned.
Did not abandon him and when the USSR did not become. Despite the fact that the Americans showed a special interest to him, and even got a lot of information, which in the other would have been guarded as a state secret, designers managed to keep the main developments in the secret, and continue to create this aircraft. In the course of the work on the Su-47, the engineers managed to solve many previously not standing in any designer of tasks and on the basis of these decisions, to achieve impressive results and create many new developments that were used in the future when creating other new aircraft, in particular the newest Su -57.
All this, stopped making a new aircraft similar to its predecessor Su-27 not only with wings, but also outwardly. Specialists "KB Dry", turned out a completely new aircraft who inherited from the predecessor, now only individual elements. In 1997, the new plane was solemnly announced on the whole world. It would seem that the project born in such difficult for the country of times, but in spite of everything, the surviving, not abandoned, brought to mind and implemented at the expense of such grave labor, now there must be a great future.
However, by the mid-2000s, the aircraft designers were already ready to create a fifth-generation fighter, which Su-47, despite all his novelty, nevertheless was not. However, it is precisely thanks to a number of technical innovations that appeared on the world, thanks to this aircraft, the creation of the very "fifth generation" in essence and it became possible. Much of what was formed the basis of the promising Su-57, it was running on the Su-47 "Berkut". Yes, this aircraft still causes hot disputes. Is there a future from such aircraft? But I don't be implemented, our aircraft would be discarded today for decades ago. And may the only built copy of this car will never see the sky anymore. With his great task, he definitely coped.
In the spring of 1996, the aviation world had a real sensation: a photo of the unusual aircraft model appeared on the page of the Russian journal "Bulletin of Air Fleet", which allegedly was done quite by chance. Journalists were filmed by the meeting of the Military Council of the Russian Air Force, which was attended by the command of the domestic Air Force and the highest leadership of the country's aviation industry. On the table there were models of two aircraft: the Su-27m fighter (Su-35) and another unusual black machine with reverse sweep wing and the front horizontal plumage (PGO).
Naturally, this photo is not left unnoticed: In 1997, the British Aviation Edition of Flight International printed the material that claimed that an unusual plane was nothing more than a new Russian fighter fifth generation. So the world first met with the project of the promising Russian deck fighter Su-47 "Berkut", the creation of which was engaged in the OKB. Dry for the 80-90s.
Russian fans of military aviation well remember this car. Su-47 was a real star of advocate the end of the nineties of zero years. Spectacular predatory appearance (it fully matches his nickname) of the fighter invariably led to the public. At that time, with the achievements of our aviation, it was, what is called, tight, so "Berkuta" had to "fade" one for all. The journalists were heated around the project with pleasure, calling the Su-47 not otherwise as a "breakthrough" and "the only hope of Russian aviation". Disputes and discussions around "Berkut" were not inferior by the heat of the fact that today they are being conducted around the Pak Fa program.
Since the first flight, the Su-47 aircraft has passed almost twenty years, and "Berkut" has not been launched into the series. The experts and aviation lovers needed several years of fierce debates, to finally understand why this very interesting project was closed. From the very beginning, the fighter was not even considered as a combat vehicle for armared parts. Nevertheless, the project "Berkut" still remains largely closed, it concerns the exact flight technical characteristics of this aircraft, and design solutions that were used when creating it.
The Su-47 aircraft was made in a single instance. Mikhail Aslanovich Pogosyan was the chief designer of this fighter. Currently, the Berkut project is officially closed, the aircraft is used as a flying laboratory.
History of creation
The development of the fifth generation fighter began in the USSR back at the end of the 70s, about the same time the Americans were engaged in research in this direction. For a long time, work was working on the creation of the concept of a new combat vehicle, which in terms of their characteristics should significantly exceed the Su-27 and MiG-29, which at this point only "became on the wing." The research participated in leading aviation KB and numerous scientific centers.
The military wanted a new fighter to be multifunctional, could develop supersonic speed at cruising flight modes, to conduct an all-round shelling of air targets in the near battle and be able to attack several opponent aircraft on distant distances. Also, serious interest was possible to significantly reduce the visibility of the new machine in the infrared and radar range.
In addition to the above, one of the main requirements for the next-generation Soviet fighter was supermenity. Initially, this item was also present in the American program, but later it was abandoned, considering this characteristic not too important.
One of the obvious technical solutions that are capable of providing an airplane is supermenity is to use reverse sweep wings (KOS). Studies in this direction were carried out by the specialists of the OKB. Dry from 1983 to 1988.
Compared to the traditional scheme, Kos has several significant advantages: it creates a large lifting force, provides optimal conditions for the work of the wing mechanization, which improves the runway and anti-powered characteristics of the aircraft and has a positive effect on the layout of the car, freeing more space for cargo compartments. However, the main advantage of Kos is a significant increase in the maneuverability of the aircraft, especially at low speeds.
But at the wing of reverse sweatshirts there are quite serious disadvantages, the main of which is the elastic divergence, which can lead to the complete destruction of the structure. To solve this problem, it is necessary to increase the rigidity of the wing, which usually leads to an increase in its mass.
The appearance of a new aircraft was determined by the mid-80s, but at that time in the USSR there was no enough powerful aviation engine capable of providing him with sufficient tutorial. To ensure the necessary characteristics, designers had to use two engines TRDDF RD-79M, each of which had a craving of 18,500 kgf. Accordingly, I had to redo the project of the aircraft, which received the name C-32. The power of the new power plant allowed the fighter for a long time to maintain supersonic speed without the use of forples.
The project was ready in the late 80s, but the increasing economic problems in the country almost put a cross on it. Fortunately, the fighter became interested in the Navy, Admirals planned to arm the heavy aircraft cruisers.
The ship variant of the machine was to differ from the land presence of folding wings and in small changes in the composition of BDEO and brake nut. This plane was practically a finalized S-32 glider with Su-33 equipment and weapons.
His mass production was planned to start in five years, but it was not destined to come true.
After the collapse of the USSR, the project financing has stopped at all, the work continued at the expense of own funds of the OKB. Dry. Because of this, the number of experienced aircraft was decided to reduce to one unit. The prototype received the name SU-37.
Then few people believed that the OKB could build and raise a fundamentally new car in the air. However, the aircraft was not only successfully improved, but also began the stage of its flight tests.
The design of the new aircraft used the latest achievements and development of the domestic air industry: the latest systems of remote control and new generation servos, production technology of large-sized composite panels, engines with a controlled thrust vector.
Designers of the OKB. The dry and employees of the Irkutsk Aviation Plant managed to create a new manufacturing technology and docking long details from composite materials. This made it possible to reduce the amount of joints, increased the stiffness of the structure and improved the aerodynamic properties of the fighter. Some systems and elements of the design of "Berkut" were borrowed from other OKB aircraft. Dry, for example, on the fighter, the chassis and the Su-27 lantern were installed.
The car made his first flight in September 1997. You can add that the Russian fighter of the fifth generation rose into the air only eighteen days later than its American counterpart - F-22A "Raptor". Given the situation in which there was a country in the mid-90s, this fact can be called a significant achievement of domestic aircraft manufacturers.
Under the name of the Su-37 "Berkut", the car was first demonstrated by the general public during the aerospace salon Max-1999. Soon the fighter was renamed Su-47.
In 2000, the flights "Berkut" were completed within the Superzovuk test program, and by the beginning of 2002 the Su-47 committed a total of more than 150 flights. The data obtained during the operation of the Su-47 was subsequently used when creating a PAK FA. In general, the test flights of the car continued until the middle of zero years. In many ways, thanks to the large amount of research work, which were carried out with the help of the "Berkut" of the OKB. Dry managed to win a tender for the development of Pak Fa and successfully complete work on its creation.
Currently, the Su-47 fighter is located on the main test base of the Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky.
The scheme for which the Su-47 is made is called "longitudinal integral triplan", the aircraft has a highly located wing of reverse sweep, the PGO and the tail plumage of a small area.
The airplane wing is smoothly conjugate with the fuselage, forming a common carrier system. Such a layout is typical for modern combat aircraft, it is implemented on all the latest machines of the OKB. Dry. Another feature of the Su-47 are the developed influx of wings, under which unregulated air intakes are located. In the section they have a shape close to the sector of the circle. The crew of the fighter consists of one person.
In the construction of the aircraft, composite materials are actively used, as well as materials and coatings that reduce the visibility of the fighter on the radar screens, domestic and foreign sources have repeatedly reported. Official data on this account does not exist.
In the manufacture of Su-47, a new technology was worked out, which made it possible to form elements of the design of the aircraft of a complex configuration, and then very accurately connect them. This made it possible to significantly reduce the mass of the car, increase the resource and significantly reduce labor costs in the manufacture of a fighter. Developers say that when creating Su-47, so-called intelligent composite materials are used, which can independently adapt to an increase or reduction of loads.
The airplane wing has direct sweatshirt in the root part and reverse sweatshirt in the console part, it is 90% made of composite materials. Su-47 wing is equipped with an aileron and flaps.
The Su-47 fighter is equipped with a all-turnover front horizontal plumage, which has a trapezoidal form. The sweatshirt of its front edge is about 50 °, and the scope is about 3.5 meters.
The tail plumage of the aircraft is also an all-turn, the angle of its sweatshirt on the front edge is 75 °.
"Berkut" has a two-killy vertical plumage with keels, "collapsed" into the outer side. Compared to the Su-27, the area of the vertical plumage "Berkuta" is noticeably less, which, together with the "collapse", the keel reduces the visibility of the aircraft for the opponent's radars.
The fuselage fighter has a cross section close to oval, it is almost completely made of titanium and aluminum alloys. The front of the nasal fairing is somewhat flattened, with a noticeable fin. Two more fairings are in the tail of the aircraft, they, apparently, can serve to accommodate radio-electronic equipment.
The lamp of the cabin "Berkuta" almost completely repeats the Lantern Su-27. True, at one of the photos it is noticeable that it has no binding (exactly the same installed on the American F-22 Raptor). Such a design improves the overview for the pilot and reduces the EPR of the aircraft, however, can create certain difficulties during a catapult.
In the cockpit installed the C-36DM catapult chair, which has a back with a slope of 30 °. Such a design reduces the impact on the pilot of significant overloads arising during a maneuverable air combat. The plane planned to establish an even more modern chair, which can ensure the salvation of the pilot, even when a catapultation at low heights in the inverted position of the aircraft.
Su-47 fighter is equipped with a three-level retractable chassis with anterior counter. The main chassis racks are attached to the fuselage and fold forward with a turn into special niches, located behind the air intakes of the machine. The front two-wheeled rack is removed forward in the fuselage niche.
The power plant of the experimental aircraft consisted of two D-30F6 engines, each of which had a power of 15.600 kgf. The similar engine is installed on the interceptor MiG-31. However, the use of these aircraft workers was considered a forced measure, in the future the developers planned to install on SU-47 AL-41F engines, which were equipped with a thrust vector control system. Airplane aircraft unregulated, they are located under the sleeves of the wing. The air channel has an S-shaped form that closes the compressor blades and reduces the EPR of the aircraft. On the upper surface of the fuselage there are two sash, which are used for additional air intake.
Su-47 "Berkut" is equipped with modern onboard equipment - the plane has established all the best that the domestic industry could offer. Initially, the fighter is equipped with a digital multichannel DESU, an automated integral control system, a navigation complex with an INS on laser gyros, satellite navigation and the so-called digital card. The machine is controlled by the side of a low-level handle and a strain gauge engine control lever (ores).
The placement of antennas of the on-board radio electronic system suggests that the creators sought to provide a pilot of a circular review. The main BRLS is in the nasal part of the machine, two more antennas are located in the tail part of the machine, between the nozzles of the engines and the tail plumage. It is likely that in addition, additional antennas are installed in vertical plumage socks, in the wing surroundings, front horizontal plumage. Accurate information, which radar station is installed on Su-47, no.
The fighter can be equipped with an optical location station, which is placed in the nose of the fuselage in front of the pilot cab. In order not to worsen an overview of the pilot, it shifts a little right.
Su-47 is an experienced aircraft, so the weapons were not installed on it. However, if necessary, "Berkut" could be equipped with a very impressive complex of rocket and cannon weapons. Like any other combat machine, performed using Stelc technology, Su-47 has spacious internal compartments for placing controlled missiles (UR) and airbabes. In addition, weapons can be placed at the external points of the suspension, which, however, will significantly increase the visibility of the aircraft for the radar.
The main rocket weapons of the Su-47 were to become an ur medium-range with active radar guidance, a small wing of elongation and folding lattice steering. NPO "Vympel" announced the successful creation of a new rocket with a direct-flow march air-reactive engine, it was planned to arm "Berkut".
Also, for weapons, the Su-47 can also use rockets of a large and super-large range, for example, KS-172 - two-stage UR, which can develop supersonic speed and affect the targets at distances of 400 km. An important component of the armament complex of the fighter could be the controlled missiles of a small range with different types of homing heads.
A 30-mm automatic GS-301 gun uses as a cannon weapon of Su-47.
|Wing span, m||16.7|
|Wing Square, M 2||56.|
|Engine traction, kgf||15600.|
|Max. Speed, km / h (m):|
|in the earth||1400 (1,12)|
|on high||2200 (2,1)|
|Practical range, km||3300.|
|Practical ceiling, m||18000.|
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I remembered as C-37, Su-47 and by the name "Berkut", this fighter remained in the only performance. As a "Flying Laboratory", he is still in the ranks and is listed on the Balance of the OKB dry - still periodically flies and still remains "by a mystery", the main secrets of which did not become a general public.
At the stage of modeling, the construction of the aircraft itself was a state secret - still, the first domestic aircraft with a reverse sweep wing (KOS). In addition to visual incorrect with all the other types of aircraft, where the wings are either cross with the case, or drawn back, this fighter predatoryly exhibited them ... Forward.
The design of this aircraft has begun in the late 80s. It was only known about the new plane that the main feature is the design of the wings that the Soviet aircraft designers were publicly denied. Without a "leakage", it was not necessary - some features of the aircraft design were disclosed thanks to the model image. It became clear that this is a project of a completely new aircraft designated as the fifth generation of domestic fighters. Sensation!
By the way, the plane has become a sensation before the moment when I first rose into the air. This happened on September 15, 1997. Then they were ruled by the test pilot of the OKB Dry Igor Prothets. Even the main competitors who created their fighters with the wing of reverse sweep, who, after many years of testing, were not known about the piloting of the aircraft, which after many years of testing, but were recognized as unprofitable. The combat capabilities of the Su-47 always remained under the vulture "completely secretly", although it did not "hang out" a complete set of rocket weapons and radar stations.
Today, another pilot pilot who had a chance to repeatedly raise into the sky "Berkut", the hero of Russia Sergey Bogdan, assesses this aircraft as a "an epochal design solution with non-standard piloting characteristics".
"This aircraft is very overall and easy to control that sufficiently unexpectedly in the presence of powerful engines and heavy containers for bombing and rocket weapons," says Sergey Bogdan, who experienced a good tens of fighters, including Pak Fa - a promising aircraft complex of front-line aviation T -fifty. - It is easy to manage and with the necessary retraining can be managed by even young graduates of military aviation schools. The side handle of the control in the compact cabin of the fighter is also very convenient - there were no such ever in domestic aircraft. This plane, like its modern analogues, is "sharpened" to ensure that the pilot is not distracted by the fighting task - the trunny handle and do not think about the commission of the air maneuver, look for a ground or air target. "
The test pilot evaluates the Su-47 as an easy to manage and combat the aircraft. He myself sometimes wants as a true athlete, "heat the muscles" on heavier "shells", for example, on the aircraft of the 3rd generation of Su-24 type, more complex in management. But this is like a whims of a professional, testes.
"The higher the generation of the aircraft, the easier it is to manage and combat application," says Sergey Bogdan. - I really liked Berkut. As they say - lay in the handle. "
What is the Su-47?
The design of the aircraft is arranged according to the scheme of an integral unstable triplan having a highly located indoor wing, the central-speaking rear tail plumage of a small area. According to test pilots, this "sorting" plane at low speeds and is able to perform air pyruets that other fighters can do.
By the way, during the production of parts for an experimental aircraft, a new technology was applied - the details of the sheath were obtained in a flat form, giving them the necessary form when the curvature coincided with docking with full accuracy. Thanks to the large-sized panels, it was possible to reduce the mass of the fighter and reduce its visibility on radar. This was also facilitated by composite materials applied in its trim.
Su-47 fighter is equipped with modern domestic onboard equipment. It includes multi-channel digital EDSU - an electrodistant system control system, an integral automated flight control system, a navigation complex that includes an inertial navigation system on laser gyros and satellite navigation.
This plane belonging to the fifth generation was supposed to have the ability to carry out allocarly shelling targets in the near air combat, as well as to conduct a multichannel rocket shooting while conducting a battle on a large range. The automation of onboard information and intercourse systems management was envisaged, as well as increased combat autonomy due to the installation in the cockpit of a single tactical decor indicator with the possibility of mixing information - simultaneous output and mutual overlay on a single scale "pictures" from various sensors.
The aerodynamics and onboard fighter systems were to provide the possibility of changing the angular orientation and the trajectory of the aircraft movement without any tangible delays, without requiring strict coordination and coordination of the movements of the governing bodies. From the aircraft it was necessary to "forgive" the rude piloting errors in a wide range of flight conditions - the pilot-test pilot Sergey Bogdan also told.
The result of a new generation fighter aircraft under the general title "Berkut" allowed Russian aircraft manufacturers to check several important ideas and collect a lot of information about aircraft with a wing of reverse sweatshirt. The information obtained on the nature of the flow and behavior of the aircraft with the COP at different flight modes allowed the domestic aviation science to close several white spots in theories.
"This project has become one of the best options for creating a whole complex of aircraft who received a rich perspective," says the SU-47 Genconstructor, the current chapter of the United Aviation Corporation Mikhail Pogosyan. - According to the development of "Berkut" we went to the current aircraft of the fifth generation - T-50. His experience will help other new fighters. "
It can be reminded that after the end of the main program of its tests, it was the aircraft Su-47 to become the main platform for working out the elements of the future T-50 fighter (FA Pak Program). And in 2006-2007, "Berkut" received a new shipment created by the T-50 project. The purpose of such a refinement was to check the flaps and the internal equipment of the compartment for performance in real flight conditions.
Despite the long-time completion of the project, there are still no disputes about the advantages and minuses or the prospects of the Su-47 aircraft as a class of aviation technology with the wing of reverse sweat. Pros and cons of Cos are discussed so far. There is still no one about the prospects for aircraft like "Berkut". As for the project itself, the aircraft designers themselves were recognized as a successful and military pilots. Although Su-47 did not become the basis for promising fighters, superior in their characteristics all modern techniques, he did everything to work out new technologies.
"The role of the latest combat aircraft with such unique characteristics will take on other developments," says Mikhail Poghosyan.
Su-47 "Berkut" is a project of a Russian fighter, which was developed in the mid-90s of the last century in the OKB. Dry. The main features of this car can be called the reverse sweep wing (COS) and widespread use in the design of composite materials. Today, Su-47 exists in a single instance, it is used as a flying laboratory. Mikhail Aslanovich Pogosyan led the creation of "Berkut".
Despite the fact that the project to create a Su-47 fighter "Berkut" a long time ago closed aviation lovers greatly remember this car. In the late 90s and at the beginning of the zero years, "Berkut" invariably shone at aviation salons, causing the attention of the audience with its unusual appearance. At that time, the domestic airflow was not particularly what to brag, so "Berkuta" had to be "fade away" for all.
Additional excitement around the fighter created journalists, calling the Su-47 "real breakthrough" and "the last hope of domestic aviation". Although, in fact, he was not there, he was not. At one time, disputes and discussions relative to the Su-47 were no less than today around Pak Fa. When the conversation is coming about the project "Berkut", most often asked why such a "cool" plane did not adopt?
The fact is that not all aircraft are developed for further serial production. Su-47 was originally planned to be adopted. This unusual car conceived as a test stand on which the design solutions of the next generation fighters will be drove. The Su-47 plane "Berkut" is another step on the path of the domestic airport to the creation of the fifth generation fighter.
History of creation
In the late 70s, work on the creation of a fifth generation fighter began in the USSR and the United States. The constructors of both countries engaged in creating the concept of a new machine, were determined with its appearance and basic characteristics. In the USSR, many scientific institutes and leading design bureaus were connected to research.
It can be said that for the most part criteria for the fifth generation fighter between the American and Soviet military, there was a consensus. And those and others wanted to see a new aircraft with an unimprovant, multifunctional, capable of conducting all-round fire and develop supersonic speed without flushing. There was only one difference: the Soviet Military insisted that the new car was highly generated, the Americans were subsequently refused to refuse this, considering this characteristic not very important.
Reverse Shot Wing (KOS) is one of the most obvious design solutions capable of providing a high level of maneuverability. Work on the creation of a fighter with Kos was carried out in the OKB. Dry from 1983 to 1988. The car had the designation SU-37. True, then this topic was officially closed.
Reverse sweep wing provides a flying unit a number of very serious advantages over the traditional scheme:
- Kos significantly improves LA handling at low speeds;
- Running the runway;
- Such a layout allows you to optimize the pressure distribution on the wing and the PGO (front horizontal plumage);
- Significantly improves aerodynamic efficiency in all flight modes;
- The radar visibility of the aircraft with braids in the front hemisphere decreases.
However, there are CBS and significant drawbacks. At some speeds and corners of Kos attack experiences significant loads that can lead to the destruction of the structure. Roughly speaking, at a certain point, the wing of reverse sweatshirt begins to simply twist. Therefore, it is necessary to either seriously increase its rigidity, or compensate for the deformation due to the aircraft management system. The first way to solve the problem can lead to a significant increase in the mass of the wing.
Be that as it may, in 1988, the project of the fighter with Kos was closed, and he could completely go into the fly, if not interest from the Navy. Sailors planned to equip the aircraft cruisers with these machines. To do this, some changes were made to the design of the aircraft: the console of its wing was made by the folding, equipped with brake nuts and add additions to the composition of the BREO. The ship version of the aircraft received the name SU-27KM.
After the collapse of the USSR, the situation with financing has deteriorated even more. The project continued at the expense of its own resources of the OKB. Dry. Few people believed at the time that aircraft builders would be under power without state support to complete a fundamentally new car. But, nevertheless, they succeeded. True, the lack of funding forced aircraft manufacturers to limit the creation of only one prototype.
It is curious about how information about the Russian "Berkut" fell to the West. In 1996, the journalist "Bulletin of the Air Fleet" was removed the meeting of the Council of the Russian Federation of the Russian Federation, at which all Russian Higher Aviation Command and the management of the aircraft manufacturing industry was presented. During the shooting on the table there was a model of a strange black aircraft, which fell into a frame and soon found himself on the magazine page. The photo was noticed. In 1997, the influential British edition of Flight International printed the material in which it was argued that a strange black aircraft is nothing more than a model of the Russian fighter of a new generation.
The Su-47 Plane "Berkut" made his first flight on September 25, 1997. In his design, the last at that time achieve the domestic aircraft manufacturer were realized: the plane received the most modern EMSU, the power plant with a variable vector of thrust, the newest avionics. Its creators managed to develop a new docking technology for long composite panels, which made it possible to reduce the number of compounds, increase the stiffness of the structure without a significant increase in its weight. In the design of the Su-47, elements and systems of serial aircraft of the SU family are widely used. For example, "Berkut" received a lantern and chassis from Su-27. It should be noted that the Su-47 rose into the sky in just eighteen days later later than the first flight of the American F-22A. Given the general situation in the domestic aviation industry in the late 1990s, such a meager lag can be called a real feat of Russian aircraft manufacturers.
The plane was demonstrated to the general public at the MAKS-1999 exhibition still under the name SU-37. The new name and "nickname" "Berkut" fighter has already received by 2001. In 2000, the car completed the test in the Supervice program, in general, until 2002, the fighter made more than 150 flights.
Operation of the Su-47 allowed the designers of the OKB. Dry to work out the latest technical solutions, a significant part of which was used later in the design of Pak Fa. In many ways, it is thanks to the project of the Su-47 OKB. Dry managed to win the competition for the creation of Pak Fa and successfully implement it.
Su-47 "Berkut" is made according to the scheme of the integral longitudinal triplan. It has a highly located wing of reverse sweatshirts with developed influx and anterior horizontal plumage (PGO). The fighter control performs one pilot.
As with other aircraft of the SU-27 family, the Su-47 wing smoothly conjugates with the fuselage, forming a single whole. The PGO and the tail horizontal plumage of the all-turn fighter, relatively small area. Vertical plumage - twokill, it is less than the SU-27. Kili fighters have collapsed away from the central axis of the aircraft, which provides SU-47 less radar visibility.
When creating a car, composite materials were widely used. By weight, the design of the glider is 13% consisting of km. The use of composites made it possible to reduce the weight of the fighter, increase its operational resource, reduce the complexity of its manufacture and radar visibility of the machine.
Machine fuselage type of hemonococcus, its cross section is close to oval. It is made mainly of titanium and aluminum alloys. The tail part of the fighter is two fairing, which can be used to accommodate radio-electronic equipment.
Su-47 wing has direct sweatshirts in its root part and inverse - in the console (-20 ° of the front edge), 90% it consists of composite materials. On the front of the wing console there is a deviant sock, and on the rear - the aileron and single-section flap.
During the creation of the Su-47 in the OKB. The dry was developed, and then successfully applied in practice a new technology for manufacturing elements of the design of the aircraft and their subsequent connection. The details of the sheath were first made in flat form, and then the preparations of the necessary shape and curvature were formated from them. The use of long and smooth panels (up to 8 meters) made it possible to reduce the quantity of fasteners and improve the aerodynamic quality of the machine. When creating the Su-47, intelligent composite materials were used for the first time, capable of adapting to a decrease or increase in loads.
The all-turning PGO is fastened to the root in the wing's root, it has a trapezoidal form in the plan, sweatshirt on the front edge is + 50 °.
The fighter cockpit lamp is completely similar to what is used on SU-27. On several photos of the aircraft, it can be noted that the Su-47 lamp is not binding, the same design is used on the American F-22 Raptor fighter. It improves the overview for the pilot, and also reduces the visibility of the aircraft on the RLS screens. The cabin is located in the C-36DM Pilot Chair with an inclination of the back to 30 °. This reduces the load on the pilot, which arise during a maneuverable air combat. At Su-47, it was planned to install an even more advanced catapult chair that could save the pilot on any heights and even ensure its evacuation from an inverted position.
Su-47 is equipped with a three-hard chassis with the nasal and two main racks. The front two-wheeled chassis rack is removed with turning forward into a special fuselage niche. The main single racks enter the niches on the sides of the air intake channels.
Su-47 power plant consists of two TRDDF D-30F11 with 15600 kgf tight, which are located in the tail of the machine. This engine is a modification of the motor D-30F6. The fighter has two air intakes located under the root in the wing. The shape of their section is close to the sector of the circle. Air intake air intakes have a S-shaped form, which provides a decrease in the level of radar viscosity of the machine. Two additional air intake flaps are located on the top of the fuselage. They are used when maneuvering, as well as during take-off and landing.
Su-47 has a digital multichannel EDSU and an integral automated control system. The fighter navigation complex includes an INS on laser gyros, satellite navigation system with a "digital card".
The integrated system of life support and the new generation catapulting system takes care of the pilot's life.
If you carefully look at the placement of the BREO antennas, then it can be concluded that the creators sought to provide the SU-47 pilot circular review. In addition to the main radar station, which is in the nose of the aircraft under the fairing, there are two rear viewing antennas located between the nozzles of the engines and the wing. It is likely that in the socks of vertical plumage, antennas are also located in the wings and the PGO. This can be judged by their characteristic white color, which is commonly used for radio transparent fairings.
The fighter can be equipped with an optical regional station. It is installed in the nose, in front of the cab lantern. And in order not to interfere with the pilot, its coating station shift several to the right (as on SU-33 and SU-35).
Su-47 "Berkut" is an experimental aircraft, which was created to work out a new layout scheme, so initially it was not planned to establish weapons. However, later the fighter was upgraded and one bombing compartment was created on it.
In addition, rocket-bomb weapons can be placed on the outer nodes of the suspension. True, in this case increase the radar visibility of the machine. The maximum battle load of the aircraft is 8 thousand kg.
It is likely that the main rifle-cannon weapons of the Su-47 is the 30-mm gun GS-30-1, and the main rocket - ur medium range with an active radar guidance system, which can be placed inside the fuselage of the aircraft. These rockets have folding lattice steering directions. The fighter can be conveniently equipped with a low-range labeled K-74 type with a thermal guidance head. These UR were first demonstrated at the Max Aviasame in 1997.
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Even when the country of Soviets made his last sighs, her scientific and design complex issued a representative number of bold and very interesting technical projects. One of these was the Su-47 - a promising deck fighter, which later received the beautiful name "Berkut". Knowing that today Su-47 does not fly - to guess what kind of fate as a whole fighter is easy. An authentic question in another: was everything so in vain really?
The coolest dry project. | PHOTO: LibertyCity.net.
The idea of creating a new deck fighter in the USSR appeared back in 1983. Then the projects of airplanes with reverse shuttlefall of the wing were very popular, and therefore the designers once again grabbed attempt to create an interesting car. Initially, the Su-47 project began as a deep modernization of the SU-27 aircraft, but later increased in something independent. The main customer Su-47 became the Navy of the Soviet Union.
Performed Su-47 on the aerodynamic scheme Longitudinal integral triplan. The already mentioned wing of reverse sweep was used. With the fuselage, the wing was conjured as smoothly as possible, thus forming a single carrier system. The angle of sweat is 10 degrees. The root part of the wing is 75 degrees.
With reverse arrow wing, everything does not give rest to the designers. | Photo: goodfon.ru.
In the design of the fuselage of the aircraft, aluminum-lining and titanium alloys and steel were used in the largest way. In the design of the wings there were a large amount of carbon fiber. Many protective elements and fairings made from modern composite materials. The fuselage of the car received an oval section with an expansion from air intakes.
Started the plane still in the USSR. | Photo: arms-expo.ru.
The aircraft was driven by two turboctive two-circuit engines of D-30FB with wide nozzles. The power of each unit is 15,600 kgf. Starting engines is performed using auxiliary power installation. The entire aircraft management system was combined into a single complex of sighting and navigation funds.
Serious car. | PHOTO: DesktopBackGround.org.
As a result, it turned out a fairly impressive car. Manages the "Berkut" one single person. Machine dimensions made up 22.6x16.7x6.4 meters. Wing Square - 56 sq.m. The optimal running mass of the fighter is 26,600 kg. Motion limit speed - 2,500 km / h. Flight range at supersonic speed - 1,600 km. The practical ceiling is 20 km. Armed Su-47 was supposed to be 1 GS-30-1 20 mm caliber gun, as well as various medium-range missiles.
As a result, almost all the developments were used to create the 57th. | Poto: sm-news.ru.
So what happened to "Berkut"? On the one hand, the final was somewhat predictable: already in 1988 the project was removed from financing and closed. All documents on a promising aircraft lay down in a dusty box. The collapse of the USSR and the crisis of the early 1990s did not contribute to the beginning of the restoration of work on a promising machine. On the other hand, in 1997, the Su-47 was remembered again in the walls of the OKB. Collected the first acting sample and showed it at the Max exhibition in 1999. In 2006-2007, the project was finalized and again removed into the folder. However, while the lion's part of the project documentation on the "Berkut" was used to create a new Su-57.
If you want to know even more interesting, then you should read aboutFighter-bomber MiG-27
: Why the legendary plane got the nickname "Flying Balcony".
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Airtensification, especially in the military sphere, we have always paid special attention - the length of the borders is huge, and therefore without combat aviation in any way. Even in the 90s, this sphere managed to survive. Perhaps someone remembers the triumphal appearance of the C-37, which was subsequently turned into the Su-47 "Berkut". The effect of its appearance was phenomenal, and the new technique caused incredible interest not only in our country, but also abroad. Why did it happen?
Program Basic Information
The fact is that the plane attracted universal attention due to reverse sweatshirt of the wing. The excitement was such that even modern discussions of the project of Pak Fa to those events are not reached. All experts proper a new development of an impressive future and wondered when the Su-47 "Berkut" appears in the troops. Why did the project closed if everything was so wonderful? About this, as well as about the milestones of the development of this plane today and talk.
"Super secret" object
It is known that the first prototype rose into the sky at the Moscow region at the end of September 1997. But the very fact of its existence became known much earlier. Already at the end of 1994, the Western press has repeatedly wrote that a certain secret aircraft is being developed in Russia. Even the alleged name - C-32. In general, it is very similar to the fact that the secret of the existence of the aircraft was except for us, because the media of Western states and about reverse sweatshirts wrote openly.
Domestic lovers of military equipment received confirmation of all this information only at the end of 1996. In the domestic periodical photography appeared, immediately called a lot of questions. There were two aircraft on it: the Su-27 was easily guessed in one of them, but the second car was not like that. First, it was absolutely black, which for domestic Air Force is not too typical, and secondly, there was a backward sweat wings. After another couple of months (and this was no longer surprised) in the same foreign media there were quite detailed schemes of the new aircraft. If anyone did not guessed, it was the Su-47 "Berkut".
In general, some kind of secrecy still managed: it was later that the project was started in the 80s. After the collapse of the USSR, not all the information of this kind "suddenly" appeared in free access. What, however, is not surprising.
How it all began
In the late 70s, all the top management of the USSR Air Force reflected on the aircraft industry strategy for all subsequent years. Already in 1981, the program started to develop a "new fighter for the 90s". The main design bureau was appointed KB Mikoyan. But the leadership of the KB of dry managed to convince the head of the project in that the existing SU-27 has an impressive ground for modernization, and therefore it is already an existing machine, and not "to invent a bike".
Just at that time, M. P. Simonov became the general director of the CB, who still decided to abandon the modernization plans, offering to create something really new. In many ways, this is due to the fact that the designers really wanted to test a number of interesting ideas without risking at the same time "to chase" on a failed project: in case of failure, it was possible to write off everything on novelty. However, even then no one doubted that these developments would be extremely valuable in any case at least from a scientific and engineering point of view.
Why did you choose the "wrong" wing?
So, why did the innovative Su-47 "Berkut" received an inverse sweep wing? To compare with traditional structures, it had several significant advantages:
- Excellent aerodynamics, and even at low speeds, this advantage is visible immediately.
- Magnificent lifting force, superior to those in the wings of a classic design.
- Improving controllability characteristics during takeoff and landing.
- A much less likelihood of a "deaf" corkscrew.
- Excellent centering - as the power elements of the wing are shifted toward the tail, a lot of space is released in the central compartment for the rational arrangement of the ammunition.
All of the above theoretically allowed to create a really perfect fighter. But if everything was so good, all the world's army would have long flew on such aircraft. The fact is that when creating such machines, it is necessary to solve the most complex constructive tasks:
- Elastic wing divergence. If it is easier to speak, at certain speeds it simply twists. With this phenomenon, by the way, collided in Nazi Germany, where there were attempts to create similar aircraft. A logical solution was to increase rigidity to maximum values.
- Radically increased aircraft weight. When performing the wing from the materials available at that time, it was carried out very heavy.
- Increase the windshield coefficient. The specific configuration of the wing leads to an increase in resistance area with all the ensuing consequences.
- The aerodynamic focus is strongly shifted, which practically eliminates manual piloting in many situations: be sure to be "smart" electronics for stabilization.
The designers had a lot to sweat over the solution of these problems, so that the Su-47 "Berkut" could fly normally.
Basic technological solutions
Quite quickly determined the main technical solutions. To achieve the desired stiffness, but when you do not overload the design, the wing was decided to do with the highest possible use of carbon fiber. Where it was possible, from any metal refused. But it turned out that all aviation engines produced in the USSR could not issue the required thrust, and therefore the project was temporarily slow.
C-37, first preim
Here the creators of the Su-47 (C-37) "Berkut" have come difficult times. In principle, the project generally wanted to minimize due to increasing economic problems, but the leadership of the Navy intervened, which offered to make a promising deck fighter from the aircraft. At the very beginning of the 1990s, the researchers returned to the topic of the wing with reverse sweep, using all the ones at that time. Actually, it was then that the project of the Su-47 "Berkut" appeared.
Achievements of designers and engineers
The most significant achievement of designers can be safely considered the creation of a unique technology for the manufacture of long parts from complex composite materials. In addition, it was possible to achieve really jewelry accuracy in their docking. The longest parts of the Su-47 aircraft "Berkut", whose photo you see in this article have a length of eight meters. Simply put, there are few parts, all of them with the highest accuracy are connected to each other, the number of bolted and rivet connections has sharply reduced. This very favorably affected both the stiffness of the structure and all the aerodynamics of the aircraft.
The mass of the project aircraft was approaching 20 tons, and at least 14% accounted for complex composites. To maximize simplification, part of the parts tried to take from mass produced machines. So, the lamp, chassis, a number of other structural elements unchanged on the Su-47 plane "Berkut" directly from his failed "ancestor" - Su-27.
On the front edge, the tilt of the wing is 20 °, at the rear wall, this value is 37 °. In the root part it was made a special influx, which allows to significantly reduce the coefficient of windscreen resistance. Almost all edges of the wing is entirely occupied by mechanization. All its design is solid composites, and only 10% falls on metal inserts added to achieve the necessary strength and rigidity.
Right on the sides of the air intakes there is a whole-turn horizontal plumage that has a trapezoidal form. The tail plumage is also made along the sweep layout. Vertical plumage is very similar to those of all the same SU-27, but its total area is much larger. This was achieved by making significant changes in the design: it began to work more efficiently, and therefore the dimensions were reduced.
The cross section of the fuselage is close to oval, outside the housing is very "licked" and the most smooth. The nasal part with insignificant changes was almost completely borrowed from Su-27. On the sides of the pilot cabin placed simple, unregulated air intakes. On the top of the fuselage they are also available, but the pilot has the opportunity to control them with an area, which is resorted to intensive maneuvering, takeoff or landing. As you can see in the photo, on the sides of the SU-47 aircraft nozzles, the characteristics of which we consider, there are small influxs, inside which radar or other equipment can be placed.
Since nothing more suitable, the plane engines were made by TRDDF D-30F11 models. They, by the way, were used on MiG-31 interceptors. Their thrust of such a car was clearly lacked, but it was assumed that in the future it would be possible to develop more travelery and cost-effective model. However, even during the take-off weight of 25.5 tons, the characteristics of these engines were more than acceptable. At high altitude, the flight rate reached 2.2 thousand km / h, the land was equal to 1.5 thousand km / h. The maximum range is 3.3 thousand kilometers, the "ceiling" in height - 18 kilometers.
Equipment and arms
For quite understandable reasons, the real composition of onboard equipment is known extremely small. It is possible to suggest that part of it was transferred with Su-27. The navigation system used all the advantages of obtaining real-time data from military satellites. It is known that the C-36DM catapult model was installed in the plane, and significantly different from typical serial models. The fact is that its back is located 30 ° to horizontal.
This was done so that pilots make it easier to carry huge overloads that occurred with intensive maneuvering at limit speeds. According to reports, other authorities were directly taken from other domestic fighters, and Su-27 was most often used as a "donor".
Since the aircraft was exclusively experimental, he did not carry the arms in principle (or the information about it was classified). Nevertheless, on the left wings, the location is clearly visible under the automatic gun (there is evidence that it was still put on an experienced airplane), and in the middle of the case there is a spacious compartment for bombing weapons. Scientists and military in one voice argue that the project pursued exclusively to check the flight qualities of this kind of machinery, and therefore there were no unique weapons on board the Su-47 "Berkut". Why did the project closed, which already showed itself quite promising?
Why did the project closed?
It should be remembered that the active tests of this prototype continued until the mid-2000s. The project was closed because it was originally planned to make experimental. All materials that were accumulated during these works are indeed priceless. A global mistake will think that it was a fifth generation fighter. Su-47 "Berkut" - only his prototype, but extremely important. So, it is already known that its central bombing compartment is almost similar to that on the newest Pak Fa. Surely on the latter, he appeared not by chance ... Only the military knew what the number of technical ideas from this aircraft would be used in the future. You can only be confident that there will be a lot of them.
Despite the theoretical closure of the project, the SU-47 model "Berkut" still causes a hot debate on domestic and foreign resources: specialists argue about the presence of prospects for such cars. Thousands of times were discussed all the pros and cons of such technology. And there is still no consensus that similar aircraft is waiting in the future: whether there is a complete oblivion, or the translation of all Air Force on such a technique. Many agree on the fact that the main obstacle to such global changes is the unreal cost of materials and technologies used in the creation of "Berkut".
In general, the project will certainly be recognized as successful. Although the Su-47 fighter "Berkut" and did not become the predecessor (although, as to know) the newest fighters, he coped brilliantly with his task. So, it was on it that dozens of new developments were running, all of them are still classified. Perhaps, with the development of materials science and reduced the process of creating some complex polymers, we will see this beautiful plane in the sky, really resembling the grace of a predatory bird.
Berkut is one of the most famous birds of predatory birds of the family of hawk. It is the largest view of the kind of eagles with a wing wing to 2.5 meters!
It is "Berkut" named Project of the Russian fighter with the wing of reverse sweatshirt - Su-47! With all its advantages over "fellow", he never reached mass production, and the only copy is now in the museum. Why?
Let's start with a very brief story
Initially since 1983, this aircraft was developed as a promising fighter for Air Force RF. In the 88th program was closed and only then came to the customer Navy The Russian Federation, since there was a need for a deck fighter with a shortened take-off and landing. Then, as usual, the collapse of the USSR, the cessation of financing and the project survived only the personal funds of the design bureau. Dry, at the expense of which it was built Single flight instance.
The sample, built in 1997, was Created already for other purposes . Su-47 differed from all not only Wing reverse sweatshirt ; in its designs were actively applied composite materials.
This was what caused the interest of designers and engineers: to create an experimental aircraft according to the latest achievements of the aircraft industry and Estimate its capabilities In the sky, and on the basis of the conclusions, make adjustments to the projects of future aircraft.
By the way, the SU-47 glider scheme was successful. The plane could take off and sit on the strip, three times shorter Strips for ordinary fighters. Exactly This plane created for the experiments. And they went for good, since already on Su-57 (he same T-50 Pakfa) , set set borrowed from the Su-47 parts . Yes, and many decisions regarding the aerodynamics "Berkut" later found their reflection in later objects developed by the Russian Design Bureau.